CASTILLE

[kass-TEEL]

Sometime in the mid-1700s, José del Castillo, born at Port Mahon, Menorca, in the Balearic Islands, a part of Spain, in c1735, moved to the British colony of Maryland, where he married Acadian Rose-Osite, called Osite, Landry, widow of Joseph Broussard, probably in the late 1750s, soon after the British deported her from the Minas valley of Nova Scotia.  According to a "List of Acadian Families Who Came to Louisiana to be Established in the Year 1767" compiled by Spanish officials that year, Pierre Castille, Joseph's oldest son, was 14 years old in July or August 1767.  This gives Pierre an estimated birth year of c1753--two years before the British deported the Minas Acadians to Maryland.  If the Spanish official recorded the boy's age accurately, then José del Castillo of Menorca was an Acadian exile when he came to Louisiana.  However, Acadian genealogist Stephen A. White has found no evidence that José del Castillo/Joseph Castille ever lived in greater Acadia.

In Maryland, José/Joseph and his family endured life among English colonists who, despite their Catholic roots, did not care much for the francophone "papists" who had been thrust upon them.  In July 1763, after war with Britain finally ended, Maryland officials counted Joseph, Osite, a daughter and two Acadian orphans probably kin to Osite at Upper Marlborough.  (Strangely, son Pierre was not counted with the family, which calls into question the accuracy of the Spanish report of 1767.)

In the early or mid-1760s, word reached the Acadians in Maryland that they would be welcome in Louisiana, where many of their relatives, including Landrys, had gone.  So they pooled their meager resources to charter ships that would take them to New Orleans.   

LOUISIANA:  RIVER SETTLEMENTS

In July 1767, Joseph Castille, age 32, wife Osite Landry, age 32, and four of their children--Marguerite, age 12, Marie-Marthe, age 6, Joseph-Ignace, age 4, and Pierre, age 14[sic]--reached Louisiana with the second contingent of Acadian exiles from Maryland.  They settled at St.-Gabriel d'Iberville on the river above New Orleans and remained there for a decade.  Two more children were born to them at St.-Gabriel--Marie-Marguerite in September 1768 (she was baptized by a Pointe Coupée priest because St.-Gabriel did not yet have a church of its own), Jean-Baptiste in c1771, and Manuel in c1774.  

In March 1777, Spanish officials counted Joseph and his family on the "right bank ascending" at St.-Gabriel.  He owned 10 cattle, 12 hogs, 18 fowl, and a "Negress" on 6 arpents of land fronting the river.  By May of that year, the family had crossed the Atchafalaya Basin to the Attakapas District.  None of them returned to the river.  In the 1820s, however, descendants of Joseph Castille, though residing in St. Martin and St. Landry parishes, lay claim to their ancestor's original land grant in Iberville Parish.  

LOUISIANA:  WESTERN SETTLEMENTS

In the spring of 1777, Joseph Castille and his family moved from St.-Gabriel on the river to the western prairies, where they remained:  

Descendants of Joseph CASTILLE (c1735-1784)

José del Castillo, whose name became Joseph Castille, born on Menorca in the Balearic islands off the Mediterranean coast of Spain in c1735, married Acadian Rose-Osite, called Osite, Landry either at Minas in the early 1750s or in Maryland in the late 1750s.  In 1763, they were living at Upper Marlborough, Maryland.  They emigrated to Louisiana in 1767, lived for a decade at St.-Gabriel on the river, where they had more children, and moved to the Atakapas District in the spring of 1777.  They settled at L'Anse de la Pointe, also called La Grand Pointe and La Pointe, on upper Bayou Teche near present-day Breaux Bridge; Joseph also owned land near Grand Coteau at the southeastern edge of the Opelousas District.  Their daughters married into the Bijeaux, Ducrest, Potier, Richard, and Trahan families.  Joseph, called "Joseph of Port Mahon" by the priest who recorded his burial, died at Attakapas in October 1784; he was only 50 years old.  Joseph's oldest surviving son and two granddaughters married into some of the area's most prominent families.  His oldest son settled at La Pointe and his younger two sons near Grand Coteau.

1

Oldest son  Joseph-Ignace, born probably at Upper Marlborough, Maryland, in c1763, married Scholastique, daughter of French Creole surgeon Antoine Borda, at Attakapas in March 1785; Scholastique's mother was a Martin.  They settled at L'Anse de la Pointe.  Their son Joseph, fils died "from liver illness," age unrecorded, in January 1794, another Joseph, fils was baptized at Attakapas, age 2 months, in May 1795, Gervais was born in November 1797, Zenon in October 1800, Onésime in November 1805 but died at age 13 1/2 in September 1819, Jean Portalis, called Portalis, was born in June 1810, and Émile Cesene in August 1812.  Their daughters married into the Briant, DeBlanc, Duhamel, and Thibodeaux families.  Joseph, fils died in St. Martin Parish in August 1833; the priest who recorded his burial said that Joseph was 75 years old when he died, but he was closer to 70; his succession record was filed at the St. Martinville courthouse in December 1833.  One of his sons settled near his cousins at Grand Coteau, but the others remained on the upper Teche.  

1a

Gervais married Marie Antoinette, called Colette, Lolette, or Lolotte, daughter of fellow Acadian Agricole LeBlanc, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in September 1821.  Their son Gervais, fils was born at La Pointe in June 1822 but died at his parents' home at age 15 months in August 1823, a son, name unrecorded, died 15 days after his birth in April 1826, Adolphe was born in September 1827, and Ferjus in July 1833.  Their daughters married into the Huval, Pellerin, and Rees families.  In November1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 29 slaves--16 males and 13 females, all black except for 1 mulatto, ranging in age from 40 years to 6 months--on Gervais Castille's plantation.  ...

Ferjus married Aurelia, daughter of fellow Acadian Achilles Thibodeaux of Pont-Breaux, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in September 1851.  Their son Joseph le jeune was born in c1855 but died at age 5 in August 1860, and Rupert was born near Breaux Bridge, St. Martin Parish, in July 1862.  ...

Adolphe married Émelie, daughter of fellow Acadian Raphaël Cormier, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in June 1853.  Their son Adam was born in St. Martin Parish in July 1855, and Raphaël in April 1857.  During the War of 1861, despite his age, Adolphe served in Company D of the Orleans Guard Battalion Louisiana Infantry, raised in St. Martin and St. Mary parishes, which fought at Shiloh, Tennessee.  Later in the war, he served in Company H of the 7th Regiment Louisiana Cavalry, raised in St. Martin, St. Landry, and Vermilion parishes, which fought in Louisiana, including forays against prairie Jayhawkers.  ...

1b

Joseph, fils married Marie Marthe Céleste, called Céleste, another daughter of Agricole LeBlanc, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in May 1822.  They settled at Pont-Breaux, today's Breaux Bridge.  Their son Onesime le jeune was born in St. Martin Parish in May 1823, Joseph Derneville, sometimes called Joseph D. and Derneville, in June 1825, Jean Baptiste le jeune in February 1826, Louis Valmont in August 1827, Don Louis in c1831, and Valsin in March 1841  Their daughters married into the Barras, Martin, Meche, and Sonnier families.  In Novemver 1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 10 slaves--7 males and 3 females, all black except for 1 mulatto, ranging in age from 34 to 2--on Joseph Castille's farm next to Zenne Castille.  Joseph, fils died in St. Martin Parish in July 1852; the priest who recorded his burial said that Joseph was 65 years old when he died, but he was 57; his succession record was filed at St. Martinville courthouse in January 1853.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 14 slaves--9 males and 5 females, 5 blacks and 9 mulattoes, ranging in age from 45 to 1--on Widow Jos. Castille's farm; this probably was Céleste LeBlanc

Onésime le jeune married Eulalie, daughter of fellow Acadian Pierre Potier, at the Vermilionville church, Lafayette Parish, in June 1851.  Their son Octave was born near Grand Coteau in November 1856, and Pierre in October 1858.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in Lafayette Parish counted 3 slaves--a 22-year-old female, a 3-year-old male, and a 1-year-old male, all black--on Onezime Castille's farm.  ...

Derneville married Marie Louise, daughter of fellow Acadian Achille Prejean, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in February 1859.  During the War of 1861, Derneville served in Company D of the Consolidated 18th Regiment and Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, which fought in Louisiana.  ...

During the War of 1861, Don Louis served in Company C of the 8th Regiment Louisiana Infantry, raised in St. Martin Parish, which fought in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania--one of General R. E. Lee's Louisiana Tigers.  Don Louis was captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in July 1863 and held at Fort Delaware, Delaware, until he was exchanged at City Point, Virginia, in March 1865.  He returned home after his exchange and married Élisabeth Adolphina, daughter of German Creole Adolphe Stelly, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in May 1873.  

During the War of 1861, Valsin served in the same unit as older brother Don Louis.  Valsin's Confederate service record said that he had a dark complexion, black hair, black eyes, and stood 5 feet, 6 inches.  He was captured four times during the war--at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in May 1863, at Rappahannock Bridge, Virginia, in November 1863, at Monocacy, Maryland, in July 1864, and at Cedar Creek, Virginia, in October 1864.  He spent months in several prisoner of war camps--Old Capitol Prison in the District of Columbia, Fort Delaware, Delaware, and Point Lookout, Maryland.  He was wounded twice.  He surrendered with his unit at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, in April 1865, returned home, and married Emma, daughter of fellow Acadian Melance Melançon, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in October 1865.  He was buried in St. Bernard Catholic Cemetery, Breaux Bridge.  

1c

Zenon married Carmelite, daughter of fellow Acadian Benjamin Thibodeaux of La Pointe, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in January 1825.  Their son Zenon Dorsin, called Dorsin, was born in St. Martin Parish in October 1827, Anatole in March 1834, Félicien in January 1836, Dormas near Breaux Bridge, St. Martin Parish, in August 1848, and Désiré in June 1854.  Their daughters married into the Broussard, Castille, Guilbeau, and Thibodeaux families. In November 1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 8 slaves--5 males and 3 females, all black except for 1 mulatto, ranging in age from 50 to 1--on Zenne Castille's farm next to Joseph Castille.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted a single slave--a 70-year-old mulatto male--on Zenon Castille's farm next to Widow Jn. Castille.  Zenon died near Breaux Bridge in May 1864; the priest who recorded his burial said that Zenon was 70 years old when he died, but he was "only" 63.  

Dorsin married double cousin Eugènie, daughter of fellow Acadian Jean Thibodeaux and widow of Adolphe Guilbeau, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in September 1855; Eugènie's mother was a Castille.  Their son Gabriel was baptized at the Breaux Bridge church, St. Martin Parish, age 2 months, in October 1857, Durel was born in April 1859, Léopold in June 1860 but died at age 4 in September 1864, Aymar was born in August 1861, and St. Marc in January 1864.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 13 slaves--6 males and 7 females, 10 blacks and 3 mulattoes, ranging in age from 35 to 1--on Dorsin Castille's farm.  During the War of 1861, Dorsin may have served as a conscript in Company G of the Crescent Regiment Louisiana Infantry, raised in Orleans Parish, which fought in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana.  ...

During the War of 1861, Anatole was a conscript in St. Martin Parish and served as a corporal in Company D of the Consolidated 18th Regiment and Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, a front-line unit raised in St. Martin Parish that fought gallantly in Louisiana.  Anatole married cousin Ophelia, daughter of fellow Acadian Achille Thibodeaux, at the Breaux Bridge church, St. Martin Parish, in March 1865. ...

1d

Jean Portalis married Anne, also called Aimée, daughter of French Creole Jean Louis Robin of Opelousas, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in October 1828, and remarried to first cousin Marie Émilie, also called Marie Carmelite and Melite, daughter of his uncle Jean Baptiste Castille and widow of Jean Guilbeau, at the Grand Coteau church in July 1831; the marriage also was recorded in St. Martin Parish.  Their daughters married into the Broussard and Castille families.  Jean Portalis remarried--his third marriage--to Marie Adélaïde or Mélaïde, also called Anatalie and Melite, daughter of fellow Acadian Jean Murphy Broussard, at the Grand Coteau church in July 1847.  Their son Jean was born near Grand Coteau in February 1850.  A church record, however, claims that Jean Portalis died near Grand Coteau in February 1843, age 40.  In October 1850, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 6 slaves--4 males and 2 females, all black, ranging in age from 85 to 21--on Jean P. Castille's farm.  Another church record, this one correct, says that Jean Portalis died near Grand Coteau in September 1853, age 42; his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse that month.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 15 slaves--10 males and 5 females, 4 blacks and 11 mulattoes, ranging in age from 48 to 2--on Widow Jn. Castille's farm next to Zenon Castille; the widow probably was Jean Portalis's third wife, Marie Adélaïde Broussard; one wonders why the slave count was made in St. Martin and not in St. Landry Parish.  

1e

Émile Cesene married Marie Adélaïde, called Adélaïde, another daughter of Benjamin Thibodeaux, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in February 1833.  Their son Cesene was born in St. Martin Parish in March 1841, Césaire in February 1845, Joseph Ignace in August 1850, Jean in August 1852, and Mathieu in September 1854.  Their daughters married into the Champagne, Cormier, and Thibodeaux families.  In November 1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 13 slaves--7 males and 6 females, all black, ranging in age from 75 to 1--on Émille Castille's farm.  Émile died in St. Martin Parish in November 1854; he was only 42 years old; his succession record was filed at the St. Martinville courthouse in August 1855.  

During the War of 1861, Cesene served in Company D of the Consolidated 18th Regiment and Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, which fought in Louisiana.  Cesene married first cousin Hélène Zenon, daughter of his uncle Zenon Castille, at the Breaux Bridge church, St. Martin Parish, in July 1865. ...

During the War of 1861, Césaire served in the same company as older brother Cesene.  

2

Pierre, born in Maryland likely in the mid-1760s, died in Louisiana probably when he was young.  There is no evidence that he married.

3

Jean-Baptiste, called Baptiste, born at St.-Gabriel in c1771, married Julie-Françoise, daughter of German Creole François Stelly, at Opelousas in July 1797.  They settled at Grand Coteau.  Their son Jean-Baptiste, fils was baptized at Opelousas, age unrecorded, in March 1799, Alexandre, age unrecorded, in March 1801, and Joseph Baptiste, sometimes called Joseph B., was born probably at Grand Coteau in November 1802.  Their daughters married into the Castille, Estorge, Guilbeau, and Labiche families.  Jean Baptiste, père died in St. Landry Parish in September 1830; he was 60 years old; his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse the following month.  His sons also settled near Grand Coteau.  

3a

Joseph Baptiste married Marie Adeline or Adélaïde, called Adeline, daughter of French Creole André Neraut, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in December 1822.  Their son Joseph Telesphore, called Telesphore, was born near Grand Coteau in June 1824, Francois Théogène, called Théogène, in May 1827, Alexandre Adelin or Adelet, called Adelet, in July 1831 but died at age 15 in November 1846, Jean Baptiste Aloe was born in January 1837, André Napoléon in August 1846 but died 2 months later, and a child, perhaps a son, name and age unrecorded, died in May 1852.  Their daughters married into the Babin, DeBlanc, Girard, and Robin families.  Joseph B. remarried to Thérèse, daughter of French Creole Jean Louise Robin and widow of Louis Stelly, at the Grand Coteau church in April 1857; Joseph B. was 55 years old.  In June 1860, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 29 slaves--13 males and 16 females, 14 blacks and 15 mulattoes, ranging in age from 58 to 1, living in 10 houses--on J. B. Castille's plantation; one wonders why this count was made in St. Martin and not in St. Landry Parish.  ...

Telesphore, by his father's first wife, married Marie Amelia or Amelina, called Amelina, daughter of French Creole Hippolyte Berard, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in October 1848.  Their son Joseph Hippolyte was born near Grand Coteau in August 1840[sic, probably 1850], and Paul Fernand in December 1851.  In November 1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 5 slaves--2 males and 3 females, all black, ranging in age from 35 years to 2 months--on Theliphore Castille's farm.  ...

Théogène, by his father's first wife, married Marie Celimene, called Celimene, another daughter of Hippolyte Berard, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in April 1852.  Their son Hippolyte Alcibiades was born near Grand Coteau in February 1855, and Joseph in February 1860.  During the War of 1861, Théogène served as a first lieutenant in King's Battery Louisiana Light Artillery, raised in St. Martin Parish, which fought in Louisiana.  ...

3b

Alexandre married cousin Josephine, called Josette, daughter of German Creole Michel Stelly, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in February 1827.  Their son Michel was born near Grand Coteau in May 1829, Alexandre Hippomene in February 1831, and Evariste in September 1833.  Their daughters married into the Boudreaux and Richard families.  Alexandre remarried to cousin Émilie, 17-year-old daughter of French Creole Louis Joseph François Robin, at the Grand Coteau church in March 1838 or 1841; Émilie's mother was a Stelly; Alexandre was in his late 30s when he remarried.  Their son Jean was born near Grand Coteau in February 1843, and François le jeune in July 1847.  Their daughter married into the Bernard family.  In October 1850, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 42 slaves--18 males and 24 females, 36 blacks and 6 mulattoes, ranging in age from 70 to 1--on Ale. Castille's plantation.  Alexandre died by December 1857, when his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse; he was in his late 50s.  

Michel, by his father's first wife, married cousin Ophelia, daughter of Jean Portalis Castille, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in September 1850.  Their son Michel Oakley was born near Grand Coteau in November 1852 but died at age 9 1/2 in August 1862, and Alexandre Theaga was born in September 1855.  Ophelia died in St. Landry Parish in September 1856; she was only 22 years old; her succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse the following April.  Michel remarried to Euphrosine, called Frosine, daughter of German Creole Théodule Mayer, at the Opelousas church, St. Landry Parish, in April 1857.  Their son Théodule was born in St. Landry Parish in February 1860.  In 1860, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 22 slaves--12 males and 10 females, all black, ranging in age from 50 to 3, living in 3 houses--on Michel Castille's plantation.  During the War of 1861, despite his age, Michel may have served in Company B of the Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, raised in St. Martin Parish, and Company K of the Consolidated 18th Regiment and Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, both units having fought in Louisiana.  ...

Alexandre Hippomene, by his father's first wife, married cousin Irma, daughter of German Creole Francois Marks, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in March 1856; Irma's mother was a Stelly.  Their son Joseph Armand was born near Grand Coteau in February 1857, and Ambroise in September 1858 but died at age 1 in November 1859.  In 1860, the federal census take in St. Landry Parish counted 8 slaves--5 males and 3 females, all black except for 1 mulatto, ranging in age from 24 to 1--on A. H. Castille's farm next to Josephine Castille.  During the War of 1861, Alexandre Hippomene served in Company H of Miles' Legion Louisiana Infantry, raised in New Orleans, which fought in Mississippi and Louisiana.  He was captured near Port Hudson, Louisiana, in June 1863, held in New Orleans as a prisoner of war, and was exchanged the following month at City Point, Virginia.  He also served as a first lieutenant in Company A and as captain of Company K of the Consolidated 18th Regiment and Yellow Jackets Battalion Louisiana Infantry, front-line units that fought gallantly in Louisiana.  In late June 1865, at the end of the war, he was paroled with Roff's Texas Cavalry at Washington, Louisiana. ...

Evariste, by his father's first wife, married double cousin Marie Thérèse, called Thérèse, daughter of Jean Baptiste Castille, fils, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in April 1856; Marie's mother was a Stelly.  Their child, perhaps a son, name and age unrecorded, died near Grand Coteau in November 1858.  Evariste died by September 1859, when his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse; he would have been only 26 years old that year.  His daughter Marie Elina was born posthumously in February 1860.  In 1860, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 7 slaves--5 males and 2 females, 3 blacks and 4 mulattoes, ranging in age from 32 to 3, living in 1 house--on Thérèse Castille's farm.  Thérèse remarried to a Canadian in February 1865.  

Jean, by his father's second wife, married cousin Philomene, daughter of German Creole Valmont Stelly, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in January 1863.  During the War of 1861, Jean served as a corporal in Company K of the 29th (Thomas's) Regiment Louisiana Infantry, raised in St. Landry Parish, which fought at Vicksburg, Mississippi.  He did not fight in the Mississippi citadel, however.  He was discharged from his unit in October 1862, probably for medical reasons.  

3c

Jean Baptiste, fils married cousin Azélie, daughter of German Creole Jean Baptiste Stelly, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in May 1827.  Their son Adolphe was born near Grand Coteau in July 1828, Jean Elphége, called Elphége, in January 1834, Louis Dumas in January 1836, Joseph Léonard in November 1847, and François Arthur in October 1851.  Their daughters married into the Castille, Dugal, Renaud (Foreign French, not Acadian), and Savoie families. Strangely, one of their daughter's births was recorded in the Grand Coteau parish "Black Bk." in April 1853.  In October 1850, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 20 slaves--12 males and 8 females, all black, ranging in age from 80 to 1--on Jean Bte. Castille's plantation.  In 1860, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 23 slaves--11 males and 12 females, all black, ranging in age from 56 to 5, living in 5 houses--on Jean Bte. Castille's plantation.  ...

Louis Dumas married cousin Marie Thérèse Stelly at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in July 1860.  Their son Jean Baptiste Valmont was born near Grand Coteau in August 1862 but died at age 6 months the following February.  ...

During the War of 1861, Elphége served in Company K of the 29th (Thomas's) Regiment Louisiana Infantry, raised in St. Landry Parish, which fought at Vicksburg, Mississippi.  ...

4

Youngest son Emmanuel, called Manuel, born at St.-Gabriel in c1774, married Félicité, another daughter of François Stelly, at Opelousas in May 1800.  Their son François Emmanuel was born probably near Grand Coteau in August 1804, and Manuel, fils was baptized at the Opelousas church, St. Landry Parish, age 11 months, in September 1807.  Manuel, père died in St. Landry Parish in November 1809; the priest who recorded his burial said that Manuel was 45 years old when he died, but he was only 35; his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse the following month.  His sons also settled near Grand Coteau, but only one line survived, and that just barely.

4a

François Emmanuel married Émilie or Émilienne, called Melite, daughter of German Creole Alexis Mayer, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in July 1824.  Their son François, fils was born near Grand Coteau in April 1826, and Jean Menelas, called Menelas in February 1832.  François, père died near Grand Coteau by July 1837, when his succession record was filed at the Opelousas courthouse; he would have been only 33 years old that year. 

François, fils married Dorothée, daughter of French Canadian Cyprien Lalonde, at the Opelousas church, St. Landry Parish, in February 1847.  They settled near Arnaudville, St. Landry Parish.  Their son Dutille was born in St. Landry Parish in June 1848, and Joseph Cyprien in September 1863.  In October1850, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted a single slaves--a 15-year-old black female--on François Castille's farm.  In 1860, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 3 slaves--all females, all black, ages 30, 25, and 7, living in 1 house--on François Castille's farm.  ...

Menelas died in St. Landry Parish in February 1850.  He was only 18 years old and did not marry.  

4b

Manuel, fils married Madeleine, daughter of German Creole Jean Baptiste Marks, at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in January 1826.  Their son François Emmanuel or Manuel le jeune, called Manuel, was baptized at the Grand Coteau church, age 3 months, in January 1827 but died at age 11 in May 1838.  Manuel, fils died near Grand Coteau in May 1828; he was only 21 years old; his succession records were filed at the Opelousas courthouse the following month and again in January 1834 and November 1836.  When his only son died in 1838, this line of the family died with him.  

Other CASTILLEs on the Western Prairies

Area church and civil records make it difficult to link some Castilles in the western parishes with known Acadian lines of the family there:

Michel Castille married Alice Dartes in a civil ceremony in Lafayette Parish in April 1833.  

Étienne Castille married Julie Castille probably at Grand Coteau, St. Landry Parish, in the 1830s.  

Lise Marie or Marie Lise Castille married Hippolyte Azolin Savoie at the Grand Coteau church, St. Landry Parish, in February 1848.  The parish clerk and the priest who recorded the marriage did not list the couple's parents' names.  

In 1860, the federal census taker in St. Landry Parish counted 2 slaves--a 20-year-old black female, and a 17-year-old black male--on Arthémise Castille's farm.  The same census taker counted 5 slaves--1 male and 4 females, all black, ranging in age from 20 to 1--on Josephine Castille's farm next to A. H. Castille.  

NON-ACADIAN FAMILIES in LOUISIANA

Not all of the Castilles of South Louisiana were descendants of Joseph of Menorca.  Other Castilles and Castillos came to the region during the antebellum period and settled on the western prairies, on the old Acadian Coast, and along Bayou Lafourche, as well as at New Orleans:

A La Castille was one of the purchasers in the public auction of Jesuit properties at New Orleans in July 1763. 

José-Joachim del Castillo married Venus, also called Marie-Francoise, a mulatresse libre, or free mulatto, at Opelousas by January 1787, when their daughter Marie was born.  One wonders if Joseph-Joachim del Castillo, obviously a Spaniard, was kin to Joseph Castille the Acadian.  Marie-Gertrude married into the Martin (French Creole, not Acadian) family at Opelousas in August 1801.  

Sébastien, son of André Casteyo or Castillo and Catherine Bosque or Foute of Majorca, Spain, married Marie Aimée Pouponne, daughter of French Creole Jean Francois Gonsoulin of Fausse Pointe, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in August 1813.  They settled at La Pointe on upper Bayou Teche among Acadian Castilles.  Their son Joseph was born in St. Martin Parish in September 1813, Terence in c1815, and Edmond in May 1818.  Sébastien died at the home of an in-law at Fausse Pointe in December 1826; he was 50 years old; his succession records were filed at the St. Martinville courthouse in February 1827 and May 1829.  Terence died in St. Martin Parish in January 1835; he was only 20 years old and did not marry.  Edmond married Marie Charlotte Delice or Dilia, called Charlotte, daughter of German Creole George Greig, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in January 1838.  Their son François Edmond was born near New Iberia in June 1839 but died at age 4 1/2 in October 1843, and a child, perhaps a son, name unrecorded, died 8 days after its birth in May 1859.  Their daughter married into the Landry family.  In November1850, the federal census taker in St. Martin Parish counted 6 slaves--2 males and 4 females, 2 blacks and 4 mulattoes, ranging in age from 20 to 2--on Edmd Castillo's farm.  

Louis Castille, "a Mexican," died in December 1819 at the home of Antoine Hartache at Île des Cypres near present-day Breaux Bridge, St. Martin Parish.  The priest who recorded Louis's burial said that he was 50 years old when he died and did not give his parents' names or mention a wife.  Louis may have been an engagé working for the Hartache family.  

Trinidad Castillo of Mexico, wife of Joseph Lozano, also a Mexican, died in Ascension Parish in August 1828.  The priest who recorded her burial did not give her age or her parents' names.  

André Castille married Agate Carlegan.  Their daughter Elisa married Steril, son of French Creole Narcisse Rochon, at the St. Martinville church, St. Martin Parish, in October 1840.  

Philippe, a mulatto libre, son of Josephine Castille, was born in St. Martin Parish in September 1843.  The priest who recorded the boy's baptism did not list the father's name.  

Jean Marie Castaille married French Creole Marie Orange Despeaux and settled on Bayou Lafourche.  Their daughter Marie Maresse or Moresse married into the Cabare or Cabarais family in the late 1850s.  

In July 1850, the federal census taker in Orleans Parish counted a single slave--a 40-year-old black male--in the Widow Castillo's household in Ward 4 of Municipality 1, New Orleans.  The same census taker counted 2 slaves--a 40-year-old black female, and a 10-year-old black male--in M. Castillo's household.  

In September1850, the federal census taker in Orleans Parish counted 2 slaves--both females, both black, ages 23 and 13--in B. Castille's household in Ward 3 of Municipality 3, New Orleans.  

In October 1850, the federal census taker in Orleans Parish counted 15 slaves--4 males and 11 females, 11 blacks and 4 mulattoes, ranging in age from 40 to 5--in Widow Castillo's household in Ward 5 of Municipality 1, New Orleans.  

In December 1850, the federal census taker in East Feliciana Parish counted a single slave--a 27-year-old black male--on Henry Castillo's farm.  

James J. Castillo or Castello married Catherine Connelly probably at Baton Rouge in the late 1850s. He may have been Italian.  

Michael Castello married Charlotte Egan.  Their daughter Charlotte was born near Pattersonville, St. Mary Parish, in February 1856.  

In July 1860, the federal census taker in Orleans Parish counted a single slave--a 17-year-old black female--in Mme. Castille's household in Ward 6, New Orleans.  The same census taker counted 4 slaves--1 male and 3 females, 3 blacks and 1 mulatto, ages 30 to 19--in A. Castillo's household; 2 slaves--both females, both black, ages 22 and 1--in Arthur Castillo's household; 5 slaves--1 male and 4 females, all black except for 1 mulatto, ranging in age from 31 to 5--in Mme. Castillo's household; and 2 slaves--both females, both black, ages 22 and 13--in another Mme. Castillo's household.  

    CONCLUSION

Joseph Castille of Menorca cannot be found in the works of either Bona Arsenault or Stephen A. White, the major Acadians genealogies.  However, an important South Louisiana historian, Shane K. Bernard, one of Joseph's descendants, insists that Castille is an Acadian name.  Wall of Names agrees.  LSU cultural geographer Robert C. West disagrees, as does this author.  No matter, Joseph and his family came to Louisiana from Maryland in 1767, lived on the Acadian Coast until 1777, and then moved to the Attakapas District, where some of his children created families of their own.  Joseph's sons settled at La Pointe on upper Bayou Teche near present-day Breaux Bridge and at Grand Coteau at the southeastern edge of the Opelousas District.  Other Castilles or Castillos from Spain and Mexico also settled in the Teche region, but none of them produced families as large as that of Joseph of Menorca.   Other Castilles or Castillos settled at New Orleans, in the Bayou Lafourche valley, and in the Baton Rouge area, but, again, their numbers did not come close to the descendants of Joseph Castille

Judging by the number of slaves owned by Joseph Castille's descendants during the late antebellum period, some members of the family lived comfortably on their farms, vacharies, and plantations in St. Landry and St. Martin parishes.  Joseph's grandson Alexandre held 42 slaves in St. Landry Parish in 1850.  Alexandre's first cousin Gervais held 29 slaves in St. Martin Parish the same year.  Alexandre's younger brother Jean Baptiste, fils held 20 slaves in St. Landry Parish in 1850, and 23 slaves a decade later.  Alexandre and Jean Baptiste, fils's brother Joseph Baptiste held 29 slaves in St. Martin Parish in 1860.  Alexandre's oldest son Michel held 22 slaves in 1860.  

At least 20 of Joseph Castille's descendants served Louisiana in uniform during the War of 1861.  Most of them served in front-line units raised in St. Landry, St. Martin, and Lafayette parishes that fought in Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana.  But at least two of them, brothers Valsin and Don Louis of St. Martin Parish, fought as Louisiana Tigers in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania under General Robert E. Lee.  Valsin, in fact, was captured four times, spent months in three prisoner-of war-camps, was wounded twice, surrendered with General Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865, and returned to St. Martin Parish to create a family of his own.  His brother and cousins also returned safely to their homes and endured the travails of defeat and Reconstruction as best they could.  

During the war, Federal armies marched three times through the Teche and upper Vermilion valleys, including Grand Coteau, and burned and pillaged many farms and plantations, some of them no doubt owned by Castilles.  Thanks to these Federal incursions, emancipation came early to the area, with its resulting economic and social turmoil.  Confederate foraging parties and cutthroat Jayhawkers also plagued the area where Castilles lived, adding to the family's misery.  

By the 1880s, seeking new opportunities in a free-labor Southern economy, some Castilles moved from their old home bases at Grand Coteau, La Pointe, and Arnaudville into the western prairie communities of Church Point and Rayne in present-day Acadia Parish.  By the 1920s, some of them had moved even farther west, to Lake Charles and even to southeastern Texas.  Meanwhile, a new Castille family center was established farther down the Teche at Fausse Pointe near New Iberia. ...

The family's name also is spelled Castiyo.

Sources:  1850 U.S. Federal Census, Slave Schedules, East Feliciana, Orleans, St. Landry, St. Martin parishes; 1860 U.S. Federal Census, Slave Schedules, Lafayette, Orleans, St. Landry, St. Martin parishes; Baudier, The Catholic Church in LA, 165; BRDR, vols. 1b, 4, 9, 10; Encyclopedia of Cajun Culture, <cajunculture.com>; Hébert, D., South LA Records, vol. 3; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, vols. 1-A, 1-B, 2-A, 2-B, 2-C, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; Jehn, Acadian Exile in the Colonies, 155; Wall of Names, 14; West, Atlas of LA Surnames, 45-46, 157-58; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05. 

Settlement Abbreviations 
(present-day parishes that existed during the War Between the States in parenthesis; hyperlinks on the abbreviations take you to brief histories of each settlement):

Asc

Ascension

Lf

Lafourche (Lafourche, Terrebonne)

PCP

Pointe Coupée

Asp

Assumption

Natc

Natchitoches (Natchitoches)

SB San Bernardo (St. Bernard)

Atk

Attakapas (St. Martin, St. Mary, Lafayette, Vermilion)

Natz

San Luìs de Natchez (Concordia)

StG

St.-Gabriel d'Iberville (Iberville)

BdE

Bayou des Écores (East Baton Rouge, West Feliciana)

NO

New Orleans (Orleans)

StJ

St.-Jacques de Cabanocé (St. James)

BR

Baton Rouge (East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge)

Op

Opelousas (St. Landry, Calcasieu)

For a chronology of Acadian Arrivals in Louisiana, 1764-early 1800s, see Appendix.

The hyperlink attached to an individual's name is connected to a list of Acadian immigrants for a particular settlement and provides a different perspective on the refugee's place in family and community. 

Name Arrived Settled Profile
Joseph CASTILLE 01 Jul 1767 StG, Atk born c1735, Port Mahon, Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain; married Rose-Osite, called Osite, LANDRY, probably MD; in report on Acadians at Upper Marlborough, MD, Jul 1763, with wife Osite, daughter Lamarthe, & orphans Paul BRAUSARD & Margueritte BRAUSARD; in report on Acadians who settled at St.-Gabriel, 1767, called Joseph CASTILLO, age 32, head of family number 19, assigned farm number 4, with wife Roza age 32, sons Pedro age 14[sic], Joseph age 4, daughters Margarita age 12, & Maria[-Marthe] age 6; in St.-Gabriel census, 1777, right bank ascending, age 45, with unnamed wife [Rose-Osite] age 38(?)[sic], 2 unnamed daughters ages 18 [Marguerite] & 15 [Marie-Marthe], 2 unnamed sons ages 9 [Joseph] & 6 [Jean-Baptiste], 1 Negress, 10 cattle, [0 horses?] 12 hogs, 18 fowl, 6 arpents; moved to Attakapas District, settled at La Pointe, near present-day Breaux Bridge; in Attakapas census, 1777, age 30[sic], head of family number 11, with wife Ozite age 30, sons Joseph age 15, Jean-Baptiste age 8, Manuel age 3, daughters Marie-Marthe age 16, Marguerite age 21, [Marie-]Madeleine age 8, 1 slave, 2 cattle, 1 horse, 1 hog, 0 sheep; in Attakapas census, 1781, with 7 individuals, 15 animals, & 20 arpents; died [buried] Attakapas 20 Oct 1784, age 50
Joseph-Ignace CASTILLE 02 Jul 1767 StG, Atk born c1763, probably Upper Marlborough, MD; son of Joseph CASTILLE & Rose-Osite LANDRY; brother of Marguerite, Marie-Marthe, & Pierre; in report on Acadians who settled at St.-Gabriel, 1767, called Joseph CASTILLO, age 4, with parents & siblings; in St.-Gabriel census, 1777, right bank ascending, unnamed, age 9[sic], with parents & siblings; moved to Attakapas District; in Attakapas census, 1777, age 15, with parents & siblings; in Attakapas census, 1781, unnamed, with parents & others; in Attakapas census, 1785, unnamed, with widowed mother & others?; married, age 22, Scholastique BORDA, daughter of surgeon Antoine BORDA & Marguerite MARTIN dit Barnabé, 29 Mar 1785, Attakapas, now St. Martinville; on Attakapas militia list, Aug 1789, called Joseph CASTILLO; died St. Martin Parish 10 Aug 1833, age 75[sic]; succession record dated 26 Dec 1833, St. Martin Parish courthouse
Marguerite CASTILLE 03 Jul 1767 StG, Atk born c1756, probably MD; daughter of Joseph CASTILLE & Rose-Osite LANDRY; sister of Joseph-Ignace, Marie-Marthe, & Pierre; in report on Acadians who settled at St.-Gabriel, 1777, called Margarita CASTILLO, age 12, with parents & siblings; in St.-Gabriel census, 1777, right bank ascending, unnamed, age 18[sic], with parents & siblings; moved to Attakapas District; in Attakapas census, 1777, age 21, with parents & siblings; in Attakapas census, 1781, unnamed, with parents & others; in Attakapas census, 1785, unnamed, with widowed mother & others; never married?
Marie-Marthe CASTILLE 04 Jul 1767 StG, Atk born c1761, MD; daughter of Joseph CASTILLE & Rose-Osite LANDRY; sister of Joseph-Ignace, Marguerite, & Pierre; in report on Acadians at Upper Marlborough, MD, Jul 1763, called Lamarthe, with parents & 2 BRAUSARD orphans; in report on Acadians who settled at St.-Gabriel, 1777, called Maria CASTILLO, age 6, with parents & siblings; in St.-Gabriel census, 1777, right bank ascending, unnamed, age 15, with parents & siblings; moved to Attakapas District; in Attakapas census, 1777, age 16, with parents & siblings; married, age 20, (1)Germain TRAHAN, son of Jean TRAHAN & Marguerite BROUSSARD, 4 Feb 1781, Attakapas, now St. Martinville; in Attakapas census, 1781, unnamed, with husband & no others; married, age 26, (2)Laurent DUCREST, son of Louis-Armand DUCREST & Anne-Catherine WILTZ of Pointe Coupée, 25 Aug 1787, Attakapas; married, age 46, (3)Auguste BIJEAUX, son of Augustin BIJEAU & Anne-Gertrude LANDRY, 25 May 1807, Attakapas; succession record dated 28 Aug 1833, St. Martin Parish courthouse
Pierre CASTILLE 05 Jul 1767 StG, Atk? born probably mid- or late 1760s, Upper Marlborough, MD; son of Joseph CASTILLE & Rose-Osite LANDRY; brother of Joseph-Ignace, Marguerite, & Marie-Marthe; not in  report on Acadians at Upper Marlborough, MD, Jul 1763, with the rest of his family; in report of Acadians who settled at St.-Gabriel, 1767, called Pedro CASTILLO, age 14[sic], with parents & siblings; in Attakapas census, 1781, unnamed, with parents & others?; in Attakapas census, 1785, unnamed, with widowed mother & others?

NOTES

01.  Wall of Names, 14, calls him Joseph CASTILLE; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-A:171 (SM Ch.: v.3, #17), his death/burial record, calls him Joseph CASTILLE "of Port Mahon," does not give his parents' name or mention a wife, & says he was 50 years old when he died.  See also De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8; Jehn, Acadian Exiles in the Colonies, 155; Voorhies, J., Some Late Eighteenth-Century Louisianians, 429, 432; West, Atlas of LA Surnames, 45, 157-58n; Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey, 174n12; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05. 

His birth year is derived from the Spanish report of 1767, the earliest of the 3 civil records in which he is found.  Note the dramatic differences in ages (45 & 30!) recorded for this man only 2 months apart by Spanish census takers in Mar & May 1777.  Note also the sometimes dramatic differences of the ages of his wife & children in the Spanish censuses of 1767 & 1777.  So much for the accuracy of 18th-century census takers.  The birth/baptismal record of one of his grandsons, dated 7 Oct 1798, says he was from Spain.  The birth/baptismal record of another grandson, dated Oct or Nov 1804, says he was "native of Port Mahon," which is on the island of Menorca (see his burial record, above).  See Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-A:170 (SM Ch.: v.5, #84), 1-B, 165-66 (Opel. Ch.: v.1-B, p.348).  West, 45, says that he was native of one of the Balearic island, Menorca, off the coast of Spain, that his surname "is not Acadian or even French in origin, but appears to be the Gallicized form of the Spanish patronym CASTILLO," & calls him Jose CASTILLO.  But West, 158n2, also admits that "nothing has been found on Joseph's family history in Spain or when he might have arrived in Maryland."  If the ages of 2 of his children found in the Spanish record of 1767 are accurate (14 & 12, giving birth years for them of c1753 & c1755, respectively), it is possible that instead of migrating from Spain to MD, as West implies, he may have lived at Minas in Acadia before Le Grand Dérangement, married Osite LANDRY there, & went into exile with her & their 2 children in 1755.  If so, his surname would be Acadian, as some historians insist.  See, for example, Encyclopedia of Cajun Culture, "Surnames," at <cajunculture.com>, edited by Shane K. Bernard & his wife Kara Tobin Bernard; & Bernard, Cajuns & Their Acadian Ancestors, 52.  (Shane is a CASTILLE descendant.)

For his wife's previous marriage, see the footnote to her profile. 

It is son Pierre's estimated birth year from the Spanish report of 1767 that provides evidence of Joseph's residence in Acadia before Le Grand Derangement & his status as an Acadian exile, but this is a pretty thin thread on which to hang a claim.  Note that Wood, p. 105, in a note about son Joseph CASTILLE, fils's marriage in LA, places the word Acadian in quotation marks when referring to the family.  Is this a hint that he does not believe the CASTILLEs were Acadians?  Update:  in Sep 2012, on Lucie LeBlanc Consentino's Facebook blog, pre-eminent Acadian genealogist Stephen A. White, answering a query from this author, stated:  "There is no evidence that either of those men [Joseph CASTILLE & his fellow Spaniard, Diego HERNANDEZ, who also came to LA with an Acadian wife in Jul 1767] ever set foot in Acadia.  Both married their Acadian wives in the early 1760s, during the period of the latter's exile in Upper Marlboro, Maryland."  So Joseph was not Acadian.  See note 05, below, for speculation on his son Pierre's actual birth year. 

Joseph's daughter Marie-Madeleine, born 27 Sep 1768, was baptized by a priest from Pointe Coupée on 22 Nov 1768, which was not unusual for St.-Gabriel residents, who did not have a church of their own until 1773.  See BRDR, 1b:32 (PCP-4, 32; PCP-3, 266).  Note again that Joseph was in 2 censuses in 1777, the one at St.-Gabriel, which was taken in early March, & the one at Attakapas, which was taken in May.  This clearly marks the time when he & his family moved from the Mississippi Valley to the prairie region west of the Atchafalaya Basin.  West, p. 45, says he settled at La Pointe, near present-day Breaux Bridge, but also had property near Grand Coteau in the Opelousas District, where his younger sons settled.  

02.  Wall of Names, 14, calls him Joseph CASTILLE; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 3:134 (SM Ch.: v.5, p.31, #70), his death/burial record, calls him Joseph CASTILLE, says he died "at age 75 yrs.," but does not give his parents' names or mention a wife; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 3:135 (SM Ct.Hse.: Succ. #747), his succession record, calls him Joseph Ignace CASTILLE m. Scholastique BORDA, but does not give his parents' names or list any children.  See also De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8; Voorhies, J., Some Late Eighteenth-Century Louisianians, 432; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05.

The Spanish report of 1767 & the censuses at St.-Gabriel & Attakapas in 1777 disagree on his age & therefore his birth year.  His burial record seems way off, too.  The earliest record is followed here.  

So was his full name Joseph-Ignace CASTILLE?  The middle name also appears in his daughter Marie Aspasie's marriage record, dated 1 Sep 1838, in Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 3:135 (SM Ch.: v.8, #107).

His marriage to Scholastique BORDA made him the brother-in-law of Attakapas District shaker & mover Jean MOUTON dit Chapeau and uncle-in-law of future governor Alexandre MOUTON.  

03.  Wall of Names, 14, calls her Marguerite CASTILLE.  See also De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8; Voorhies, J., Some Late Eighteenth-Century Louisianians, 432; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05. 

Her ages differ slightly in the Spanish report of 1767 & the censuses at St.-Gabriel & Attakapas in 1777.  The earliest record is followed here.  Why was she not in the report on Acadians at Upper Marlborough, MD, Jul 1763, with the rest of her family?  See Jehn, Acadian Exiles in the Colonies, 155.

04.  Wall of Names, 14, calls her Marie-Marthe CASTILLE; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 3:135 (SM Ct.Hse.: Succ. #733), her succession record, calls her Marie Marthe CASTILLE m. Auguste BIJAU, includes her last will, but does not give her parents' names or list any children.  See also De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8; Jehn, Acadian Exiles in the Colonies, 155; Voorhies, J., Some Late Eighteenth-Century Louisianians, 432; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05. 

05.  Wall of Names, 14, calls him Pierre CASTILLE.  See also De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8; Voorhies, J., Some Late Eighteenth-Century Louisianians, 432; Wood, Acadians in Maryland, 104-05. 

His estimated birth year derived from the Spanish report of 1767 would be c1753, which is 2 years before his mother would have been exiled to MD in 1755!  He is not in the report on Acadians at Upper Marlborough, MD, Jul 1763, with the rest of his family, when he would have been 10 years old (but neither is sister Marguerite, who would have been 8).   See Jehn, Acadian Exiles in the Colonies, 155.  Pierre also fails to appear in the LA censuses in which his family is found after 1767 & in which individual names are given.  See De Ville, St. Gabriel Census, 1777, 2; De Ville, Southwest LA Families, 1777, 8.  Nor does he appear in the church records of the St.-Gabriel or Attakapas settlements.  See BRDR, vol. 2; Hebert, D., Southwest LA Records, vols. 1-A, 1-B, 2-A, 2-B, indexes.  What happened to him?  Did he die soon after the Spanish report of 1767?  Wall of Names includes him with the rest of his family, so they believe he existed.  My guess was that he was 14 months, not 14 years, old in the summer of 1767 & that he died very young. 

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