Acadians Who Found Refuge in Louisiana, February 1764-early 1800s


[MY-ooz donh-tray-MONH]


Philippe Mius d'Entremont of Cherbourg, Normandy, came to Acadia in 1651 as a lieutenant of Charles La Tour, a childhood friend.  Philippe was 50, a lieutenant-major, married to Madeleine Hélie, and father of a daughter when he was named La Tour's adjutant.  In 1653, during his second tenure as governor of the colony, La Tour awarded the trusty Mius d'Entremont the seigneurie of Pobomcoup, now Pubnico, near Cap-Sable, where Philippe and Madeleine settled for most of their time in Acadia; Philippe thus became the sieur d'Entremont, baron de Pobomcoup, lieutenant-major et commandant des troupes.  His barony ran from Cap-Nèigre, northeast of Cap-Sable, around to Cap-Fourchu near present-day Yarmouth.  He built his feudal house near the entry to the harbor at Pobomcoup.  One biographer asserts:  "D'Entremont played an important part in the colony's history both because of what he did as an administrator and because he was one of the rare Acadian seigneurs to concern himself with cultivation and with clearing land; he attracted to his estate 'several indentured workers and a few families from Port-Royal ... and this seigneury eventually formed a small centre of population.'"  In 1670, at age 69, upon the restoration of the colony to France, Philippe became the King's attorney in Acadia.  He served in this capacity until 1688, when old age and infirmity (he was 87!) compelled him to relinquish the post.  In his final days he lived for a time at Minas with his older daughter and died in c1700 at age 99, "with all his teeth," either at Minas or Port-Royal.  He and his wife Madeleine had four more children in Acadia, including three sons who created families of their own.  Their older daughter married into the Melanson dit LaVerdure family.  

Oldest son Jacques Mius d'Entremont, sieur et baron de Pobomcoup, co-seigneur of Port-Royal and Acadia, born at Pobomcoup in c1658, married Anne, daughter of Charles La Tour and Jeanne Motin de Reux, Charles d'Aulnay's widow, in c1678.  Jacques and Anne had nine children, including four sons who married into the Amireau, d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Landry, Boudreaux, and Molaison families.  Their five daughters married into the Dupont Duvivier, Dupont Duchambon, Landry, Boulais de Saillans, Pastour de Costebelle, Navailles de Labatut, and Lafitte families.  Philippe Pastour de Costebelle was governor of Newfoundland when he married Jacque's daughter Anne at Port-Dauphin, Newfoundland, in February 1716; she was age 22, and he was 55; she had married her first husband, Antoine de Boulais de Saillans, an ensign in the French troupes de la marine, when she was only 13 and, according to Acadian historian Father Clarence-J. d'Entremont, " became ... the youngest widow in the annals of Acadian, and even of Canada."  Anne remarried--her third marriage--to French baron Chevalier Laurent de Navailles de Labatut at St.-Eustache de Paris in France in August 1719.  She lived at her husband's family estate, the Château de Navailles-Labatut, which still stands near the village of Labutat-Figuières in the Béarn hills north of the Pyrenées, in the far southwest corner of France.  She died at the château in October 1778, in her 80s, when her D'Entremont kinsmen were languishing far to the north at the port of Cherbourg, to which they had been deported 20 years earlier.  Jacques died in 1735 or 1736 probably at Pobomcoup.  His descendants used the surname Mius d'Entremont or D'Entremont.

Abraham Mius, sieur de Pleinmarais, born at Pobomcoup in c1658, married Marguerite, another daughter of Charles La Tour and sister of his brother's wife Anne, in c1676.  They had nine children also.  Four of their daughters married into the Bourgeois, Crépeau, Channitteau, and Landry families.  None of Abraham's three sons seems to have survived childhood, so this line of the family, except for its blood, did not continue.  Abraham died in September 1704, in his mid-40s.  His daughters used the surname Mius.  

Youngest son Philippe Mius d'Azy, born at Pobomcoup in c1660, married first an Indian woman whose name has been lost to history, in c1678.  Philippe also lived for a time at La Hève, up the coast from Cap-Sable.  He and his first wife had five children, including a son who married into the Amireau dit Tourangeau family and settled at Port-Royal, and two sons who also married Indian women.  One of those sons lived at Mouscoudabouet, now Musquodoboit Harbor near present-day Halifax.  Philippe's two daughters married into the Viger and Bonnevie dit Beaumont families.  Philippe remarried to another Indian woman, Marie, in c1687.  They had nine children, including five sons, four of whom married.  One son married into the Lapierre family.  The surnames of three of the other married sons' wives have been lost, so they probably married Mi'kmaq women.  Philippe and Marie's four daughters married into the Thomas, Guédry dit Gravois, Grand-Claude, and Cellier dit Charêt families.  Philippe, fils's descendants used the surname Mius d'Azy.  Some of them left peninsula Acadia for Île St.-Jean, today's Prince Edward Island, by the 1750s.  

In 1755, descendants of Philippe Mius d'Entremont could be found at Annapolis Royal, on Île St.-Jean, and in France, but they were especially plentiful in the family's barony at Pobomcoup near Cap-Sable. 


[For the family's travails in the Great Upheaval, see Book Six]


Only one descendant of Philippe Mius d'Entremont, baron de Pobomcoup, found refuge in Louisiana.  Philippe's great-grandson, Jacques IV, son of  Jacques Mius d'Entremont III and Marguerite Landry, came to Louisiana aboard La Ville d'Archangel, the sixth of the Seven Ships from France, that reached New Orleans in early December 1785.  The recently appointed captain was only 29 years old when he made the crossing.  With him was his widowed mother, age unrecorded; wife Marie Herve, age 30; son Jacques-Ferdinand, age 1; newborn daughter Marie, or Martine, born probably aboard ship; and three Langlinais stepchildren, ages 11, 9, and 7.  Infant Martine was baptized at New Orleans soon after the family reached the city.  

Jacques IV took his family to upper Bayou Lafourche, where his wife soon died.  He does not seem to have remarried.  Despite the captaincy given to him by the Spanish, censuses taken on upper Bayou Lafourche in the late 1780s and early 1790s reveal a man who was not much more affluent than fellow Acadians from humbler families.  In 1788, Jacques IV, now a widow, was living on the upper bayou with daughter Martine and two Langlinais stepchildren; son Jacques-Ferdinand had died by then.  Jacques IV's spread along the bayou was 8 arpents wide (the typical Acadian land grand was 6 arpents wide), he owned a single slave, one horned cow, and one pig.  Three years later, still living with his daughter and two Langlinais stepchildren, he could boast 10 arpents of frontage on the river, but he still owned only a single slave and only one cow.  His swine herd, however, had increased to 10--still a much more humble "seigneurie" than that of his distinguished ancestor.


Jacques Mius d'Entremont IV's daughter Martine survived childhood at Lafourche, but she did not remain there.  After she came of age, she crossed the Atchafalaya Basin and married Jean-Baptiste, son of fellow Acadians Jean-Athanase Trahan, and Marguerite Thibodeau, at Attakapas in July 1802. They settled at La Grosse Île du Vermilion.  Perhaps a victim of the rigors of childbirth, Martine died in St. Martin Parish in October 1807; she was only 23 years old. 


Jacques Mius d'Entremont IV, the captain, and his wife Marie Herve, came to Louisiana in 1785 but had no more children there.  Son Jacques-Ferdinand probably died in childhood.  Daughter Martine survived childhood and married but died in her early 20s.  This proud, old Acadian family, then, except through a line of the Trahan family, did not survive in the Bayou State.  

The family's name also is given as d'Entremont de Pobomcoup, Meuse, Miousse, Mius d'Azit, Mius de Pobomcoup, and also is spelled as Dantremon, Dendremont.  [See also Book Ten]

Sources:  Arsenault, Généalogie, 502, 1593-1605, 2471, source of quotes; Bunnell, French & Native North American Marriages, 83-84, 157; Clément Cormier, "Mius (Muis) D'Entremont, Philippe," DCB, 1:510, source of quote; Paul Delaney's chronology of Le Grand Dérangement  in <>; Hébert, D., Acadians in Exile, 41, 106-07, 162, 271, 329, 334; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, vol. 1-B; <>; NOAR, vol. 4; Robichaux, Bayou Lafourche, 1770-98, 43, 175; White, DGFA-1, 1201-11; White, DGFA-1 English, 190 (source of quote), 256-57. 

Settlement Abbreviations 
(present-day civil parishes that existed in 1861 are in parenthesis; hyperlinks on the abbreviations take you to brief histories of each settlement):




Lafourche (Lafourche, Terrebonne)


Pointe Coupée




Natchitoches (Natchitoches)

SB San Bernardo (St. Bernard)


Attakapas (St. Martin, St. Mary, Lafayette, Vermilion)


San Luìs de Natchez (Concordia)


St.-Gabriel d'Iberville (Iberville)


Bayou des Écores (East Baton Rouge, West Feliciana)


New Orleans (Orleans)


St.-Jacques de Cabanocé (St. James)


Baton Rouge (East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge)


Opelousas (St. Landry, Calcasieu)

For a chronology of Acadian Arrivals in Louisiana, 1764-early 1800s, see Appendix.

The hyperlink attached to an individual's name is connected to a list of Acadian immigrants for a particular settlement and provides a different perspective on the refugee's place in family and community. 

Name Arrived Settled Profile
Jacques Mius D'ENTREMONT IV 01 Dec 1785 Asp born c1756, probably Pobomcoup; son of Jacques Mius D'ENTREMONT III & Marguerite LANDRY; deported Louisbourg to Cherbourg, France, 1758-59, age 2; at Cherbourg, France, 1767, age 11; married Marie HERVE of St.-Brieuc, St.-Malo, France, widow of Louis LONDROMON dit LANGLINAIS of St.-Malo, early 1780s, probably St.-Malo; a wedding witness (he signed) Feb 1784, St.-Servan, France; granted a captaincy by the Spanish authorities because of the nobility of his family & their service as "governors" in Acadia, Oct 1784; sailed to LA on La Ville d'Archangel, age 29, head of family, no occupation listed; in Valenzuéla census, 1788, left bank, called Jacques Mius DENTREMONT, age 30, with no wife so probably a widower, daughter Martines age 2, stepson Jean[-Louis] LANGLINAY age 14, stepdaughter Angélique LANGLINAY age 10, 1 slave, 8 arpents, 15 qts. corn, 1 horned cattle, 1 swine; in Valenzuéla census, 1791, left bank, called Jacques Minus DENDREMONT, age 34, with no wife listed, stepdaughter Marie LANGLIER age 16, Angélique [LANGLIER] age 14, daughter Martine age 5, 1 slave, 10 arpents, 0 qts. rice, 60 qts. corn, 1 horned cattle, 0 horses, 10 swine
Jacques-Ferdinand Mius D'ENTREMONT 02 Dec 1785 Asp? born c1784, France; son of Jacques Mius D'ENTREMONT IV & Marie HERVE; brother of Marie/Martine; sailed to LA on La Ville d'Archangel, age 1; not in Valenzuéla census of 1788 with the rest of his family, so he probably died young
*Marie-Martine Mius D'ENTREMONT 03 Dec 1785 Asp, Atk sailed to LA on La Ville d'Archangel; born probably aboard ship; called Martine, daughter of Jacques Mius D'ENTREMONT IV & Marie HERVE; sister of Jacques-Ferdinand; baptized c25 Oct[probably Dec] 1785, New Orleans, soon after the family reached LA; in Valenzuéla census, 1788, left bank, called Martines, age 2, with widowed father & half-siblings; in Valenzuéla census, 1791, left bank, called Martine, age 5, with widowed father & 2 half-siblings; moved to Attakapas District; married, age 17, Jean-Baptiste, son of Athanase TRAHAN & Madeleine THIBODEAUX, 27 Jul 1802, Attakapas, now St. Martinville; settled at La Grosse Île du Vermilion; died St. Martin Parish, 5:00 p.m., 28 Oct 1807, age 23, buried next day 


01.  Wall of Names, 46, calls him Jacques Mieus D'ENTREMONT; Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey, 108, 185, note 86, calls him D'ANTREMONT, & says in note 86 that the Spanish granted him the rank of "captain general 'de referida Provincia'."  See also Robichaux, Acadians in St.-Malo, 1099; Robichaux, Bayou Lafourche, 1770-98, 43, 175.

The D'ENTREMONTs were never governors of Acadia but were indeed of a noble family & held the seigneury of Pobomcoup, now Pubnico, near Cap-Sable.  D'ENTREMONT's ancestor also served as the King's attorney in Port-Royal.  

For the likely scenario of his deportation to France, see the footnote for his mother's profile.  

Judging from the ages of his stepchildren & from the ages of his own children by Marie HERVE, Jacques & Marie were married sometime in the early 1780s, when he was in his late 20s.  Jacques's wife's first husband's name is from the May 1796 marriage record of stepdaughter Marie-Jeanne LANGLINAIS in BRDR, 2:451 (SJA-2, 34), which calls her Maria LANGLINETTE; also in stepson Jean-Louis's daughter Marie-Perronille's 1797 baptismal record in Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-A:482 (SM Ch.: v.5, #2), which calls him Louis LANGLINAIS of St.-Malo & his father also Louis LANGLINAIS of St.-Malo.  

Evidently Jean-Louis, called Louis, stepson of Jacques Mius D'ENTREMONT, was the progenitor of the French Creole LANGLINAIS family in South LA; he married an Acadian girl, Céleste, daughter of René LEBLANC, at Attakapas, now St. Martinville, in Sep 1794, 9 years after he reached LA.  See Hébert, D., 1-A:482(SM Ch.: v.4, #102).  I call the LANGLINAISs French Creoles because they came to LA before 1803, &, despite the LANGLINAIS association with the Acadian D'ENTREMONTs, the LANGLINAISs never lived in Acadia but were from St.-Malo, specifically St.-Servan, a suburb of St.-Malo.  (Sorry, Pauline, but I tried.)  LANGLINAIS in fact may have been a dit name.  The burial record of one of Jean-Louis's daughters who died at age 7 days in Dec 1799, & the baptismal record of another daughter born in Jan 1801, called him Jean LANDROMON dit LANGLINAIS.  See Hébert, D., 1-A:482 (SM Ch.: v.4, #197), 1-B:437.  The family's name also is spelled LANGLINE, LANGLAIS, LANGLINOIS, & is not to be confused with the more numerous French Creole LANGLOIS family who also lived in the Attakapas region.

02.  Wall of Names, 46, calls him Jacques-Ferdinand Mieus D'ENTREMONT.

Did he survive the crossing from France?

03.  Not in Wall of Names because of the circumstance of her birth.  NOAR, 4:74 (SLC, B9, 390), her birth/baptismal record, calls her Maria DE ANTREMUT, gives her parents' names, says she was baptized "[* - cir. Oct.] 25, 1785," does not give her birth date, & says her godparents were Gilverto LEONARD & Luisa BROMI[CI?]; Arsenault, Généalogie, 2471, calls her Martine D'ENTREMONT; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-B:204-05, 711 (SM Ch.: v.4, #256), her marriage record, calls her Martine D'ENTREMONT of New Orleans, gives her & her husband's parents' names, spells her father's surname DANTREMON, gives her mother's hometown in France, says his parents' were "of Acadia," & that the witnesses to her marriage were Carlos FAGOT, Jean LANGLINAIS [her stepbrother], Joseph TRAHAN, & Pierre TRAHAN; Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-B:204-05 (SM Ch.: v.4, #482), her death/burial record, calls her Martine D'ENTREMONT, "m. to Jean-Baptiste TRAHAN of La Grosse Ile du Vermillion, a native of New Orleans," gives the exact time of her death, says she died "at age 23 yrs.," but does not give her parents' names.  

She was one of the newborn infants named after Martin NAVARRO, the Spanish intendant of LA, who stood as honorary godfather to their newborns, hence her name Martine.  See notation in appendix.  She could not have been baptized at New Orleans in late Oct since her ship did not reach New Orleans until early Dec.  Perhaps the recording priest meant to say that she was born in late Oct.  La Ville d'Archangel left St.-Malo on 12 Aug 1785 and was at sea for 113 days, until 3 Dec.  

Considering her age at the time of her death, she probably died from childbirth.  She and her husband had at least 2 children--Adélaïde, born in Jun 1804, and Eusèbe in Aug 1806--before she died.  Eusèbe married distant cousin Marie Emilite, called Melite, daughter of Olivier TRAHAN, in Lafayette Parish in Jan 1829, so the D'ENTREMONT blood lived on in LA.  See Hébert, D., Southwest LA Records, 1-B:706, 709, 2-C:752.  

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Copyright (c) 2007-16  Steven A. Cormier