Acadians Who Found Refuge in Louisiana, February 1764-early 1800s
Jean, fils, son of Jean Gousman, père and Marie Granielle, was born probably at St.-Nicolas, Andalusia, Spain, in c1729. He came to Acadia by c1755, when he married Acadian Marie Barrieau probably at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. She died without giving him any children.
LE GRAND DÉRANGEMENT
Le Grand Dérangement of the 1750s complicated the life of this new Acadian. Jean Gousman, fils eluded the British roundup at Annapolis Royal in the autumn of 1755 and, along with other Acadian refugees, escaped north to the Gulf of St. Lawrence shore. In January 1760, at Restigouche at the head of the Baie des Chaleurs, he remarried to Rose, daughter of Acadian Jacques dit Jacquot Bonnevie dit Beaumont, fils of Port-Royal and Île St.-Jean. After the fall of Restigouche in late 1760, Jean and Rose fell into the hands of the British and were held as prisoners of war at Halifax. After the French and Indian War finally ended in 1763, Jean and Rose chose to go to the French-held island of Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland.
Jean, fils and Rose had at least nine children, including six sons, all of them born during Le Grand Dérangement, most of them on Île Miquelon: Raphaël was born probably at Halifax in c1762, Rosalie-Charlotte in c1764, Gousman in c1766, Étienne in c1767, Joseph-Antoine in c1768, Jean-Baptiste in c1770, Anne-Marie in c1772, Ludivine was baptized at Cenan, France, in August 1774, and Jean-Thomas was born at Chantenay, France, near Nantes, in August 1783. All of these children except two died in childhood, which, sadly, was not uncommon for Acadian families during Le Grand Dérangement.
In 1772, French authorities were convinced that Miquelon was overpopulated, so they coaxed many Acadians on the island, including the Gousmans, to resettle in France. Jean and Rose went to Le Havre. Soon after arriving in France, they went to the Poitou region with hundreds of other Acadians to start a new life on land owned by an influential nobleman. The settlement failed after two years of effort, so, with other disgruntled Acadians, the Gousmans retreated to the coastal city of Nantes, where they survived as best they could. In the early 1780s, the Spanish government offered the Acadians in France the chance for a new life in faraway Louisiana. Jean Gousman and his wife Rose Bonnevie agreed to take it.
LOUISIANA: RIVER SETTLEMENTS
Jean Gousman, fils, age 56, second wife Rose Bonnevie, age 44, and two of their children--daughter Rosalie-Charlotte, age 21, and son Jean-Thomas, age 2--sailed to Louisiana aboard L'Amitié, the fifth of the Seven Ships from France, which reached New Orleans in November 1785. They followed some of the other passengers from L'Amitié to a settlement south of New Orleans. San Bernardo, also called Nueva Gálvez, was an Isleño community along Bayou Terre-aux-Beoufs dating back to early 1779. The Isleños, or Canary Islanders, spoke Spanish, so it is no wonder that this Spanish-speaking Andalusian chose to settle there.
Rosalie-Charlotte probably did not follow her parents to San Bernardo. In January 1786, she married Frenchman Claude-Epiphane Le Faibre of Caillouel, Picardie, perhaps a crewman aboard L'Amitié. They settled at New Orleans. Rosalie-Charlotte remarried to Evan-Jean Detresse at New Orleans in c1795; he was a native of New York. She died at New Orleans in October 1829, a widow; the priest who recorded her burial said that Rosalie Charlotte died at age "ca. 70 yr.," but she probably was closer to 65.
Descendants of Jean GOUSMAN, fils (c1729-1790s)
Jean, fils, son of Jean Gousman, père and Marie Granielle of St.-Nicolas, Andalusia, Spain, was the widower of Marie Barrieau of Port-Royal and the husband of Rose Bonnevie dit Beaumont of Île Royale when he came to Louisiana in 1785. His second wife died at San Bernardo in October 1791, and Jean, fils, now in his early 60s, remarried again--his third marriage--to Brigitte, daughter of Acadian Charles Trahan and widow of Étienne Landry and Philippe Boudier, at either San Bernardo or New Orleans soon after Rose died. Brigitte gave him another son, who survived childhood, created a family of his own, and, like his father, married three times. But the son did not remain in the New Orleans/St. Bernard Parish area.
Older son Jean-Thomas, by his second wife, baptized at St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, France, age unrecorded, in August 1783, probably died young.
Younger son Jean III, by his third wife, born at New Orleans or San Bernardo in c1793 when his father was in his early 60s, married Anne Marie Candelaria, called Marie, daughter of French Creole Pierre Honoré Veillon of St. Bernard Parish, at New Orleans in June 1817; the recording priest used the surname Gusman for Jean III. Their son Pierre Cyprien was born at New Orleans in May 1818, Barthélémy Eugène, called Bart, in St. Bernard Parish in February 1820, Valéry in March 1822, and Jean Evariste in October 1829. In c1822, Jean and Marie moved north from St. Bernard to St. Tammany Parish and settled on Bayou Bonfouca near present-day Slidell. Their daughters Josephine and Marie Brigida married into the Hosmer and Merritt families. Jean III remarried to Mathilde, 36-year-old daughter of René Baham, in St. Tammany Parish in October 1842. Their son Paul Lyman was born in St. Tammany Parish in c1843, and Martin Joseph in November 1845. Jean III remarried again--his third marriage--to Hamilton, daughter of Irishman Samuel Stewart, at New Orleans in September 1849; Jean III was in his late 50s. In 1836, Jean III lived in the Fourth Ward of St. Tammany Parish and owned 70 slaves; he also "engaged in manufactures at his establishment on Bayou Vincent." His will was notarized at New Orleans in January 1857 and filed at the Covington courthouse, St. Tammany Parish. Jean III died at his home on Bayou Bonfouca in September 1858, he was 65 years old; he was buried next to his first wife in what became Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Cemetery, the site of his old homestead (the Gusman family donated the land for Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic church and school, hence its location on the family's old home site).
Pierre Cyprien, by his first wife, married Moniute or Innocente Piernas in St. Tammany Parish in 1841. Pierre Cyprien died in St. Tammany Parish in August 1858; he was only 40 years old.
Bart, by his first wife, married Louisiana Childress in St. Tammany Parish in November 1841. Their son Alfred Valéry was born in St. Tammany Parish in 1843, and John Arthur in 1855. Bart remarried to Aglae or Abigail Favre at Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, in November 1859. Aglae probably was part Indian, perhaps Choctaw. They remained at Bay St. Louis. Their daughter married into the Luc de Guerre family. During the War Between the States, Bart served in the 3rd Regiment Mississippi Volunteer Infantry; he enlisted in 1861 as first sergeant of his company but was discharged in October 1862 because of his age; he was 42. Bart died by 1869, when his wife remarried; he would have been in his late 40s.
Alfred Valéry, by his first wife, died in Mobile County, Alabama, in June 1928. He was 85 years old.
Valéry, by his first wife, attended Springhill College in Mobile, Alabama, and died at Mobile in 1839. He was only 17 years old.
Jean Evariste, called John E., from his first wife, married Mary Ann, daughter of John Carey, in St. Tammany Parish in December 1857, and remarried to Josephine Cooper at Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, in March 1882. Jean Evariste died at Slidell in December 1914; he was 85 years old; he was buried in Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Cemetery, near his parents and near the site of his birth. Guzman and Carey streets in Slidell are named for him and his wife's family.
Paul Lyman, by his second wife, married Harriet, daughter of Abraham Stover Penn, in St. Tammany Parish in December 1865. Paul died at Florenville, St. Tammany Parish, in February 1907, in his early 60s.
Martin Joseph, by his second wife, married Estelle Faciane probably in St. Tammany Parish in August 1872, and remarried to Georgianna Cooper probably in St. Tammany Parish in June 1883. Martin Joseph died at Hodge, Louisiana, in April 1938; he was 92 years old.
NON-ACADIAN FAMILIES in LOUISIANA
Gusman or Guzman is a fairly common Hispanic surname, so it is no surprise that members of the family settled in Spanish Louisiana:
The Gusman/Guzmans were Isleños who settled at San Bernardo in the late 1770s. They were neighbors, then, of Jean Gousman of Andalusia, who probably was not their kin.
Josef, son of Andres Gusman and Juana Cadon of Santiago le los Cavilleros, Santo Domingo, today's Dominican Republic, died at Charity Hospital in New Orleans in March 1798. The priest who recorded his burial said that Josef was 42 years old when he died. The priest mentioned no wife, so one wonders if Josef had a family of his own.
This Acadian family, especially its settlement pattern, is like no other, but they were not the only Acadians with Spanish roots. The Gousmans, however, came to Louisiana by a different way and at a different time than the Castilles and the Hernandezs.
Jean Gousman, fils of Andalusia, Spain, perhaps a sailor, lived at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, before Le Grand Dérangement, at Restigouche, Halifax, and on Île Miquelon in greater Acadia, and at Le Havre, Poitou, and Nantes, France, during the Great Upheaval. Before and during Le Grand Dérangement, he married two Acadians, at Annapolis Royal in c1755 and at Restigouche in 1760. He brought a son, Jean-Thomas, to Louisiana from France in 1785, but there is no evidence that the boy survived to raise a family of his own. Jean, fils, who settled in the Isleño community of San Bernardo, south of New Orleans, remarried--again, to another Acadian--at San Bernardo in the early 1790s, when he was in his early 60s. He died probably at San Bernardo later in the decade.
It was a son from Jean, fil's third marriage, to Brigitte Trahan, also twice widowed, who perpetuated this family in the Bayou State. In 1817, Jean III married into a prominent French Creole family of St. Bernard Parish, but he and his wife did not remain there. In c1822, they crossed Lake Pontchartrain to St. Tammany Parish and settled on Bayou Bonfouca near present-day Slidell, where Jean III remarried twice. His second wife gave him more children; his third wife did not. The Gousmans probably were the only Acadian family living in St. Tammany Parish before the War Between the States. And there they remained. In the years that followed, their family name evolved from Gousman to Gusman and Guzman. The town of Slidell was founded in the early 1880s when the railroad came through the area, and it was incorporated in 1888. The Guzmans, who decades before had settled where the town was laid out, could rightly claim that they were among Slidell's first residents.
The family did well on its large holdings in Tammany Parish during the antebellum period. Jean Guzman III, called John by his Anglophone neighbors, held 70 slaves in 1836 and "engaged in manufactures." ...
The family's name also is spelled Gouchemen, Gousmont.
Sources: Arsenault, Généalogie, 583, 1659, 2096, 2236; NOAR, vols. 3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18; Robichaux, Acadians in Châtellerault, 45-46; Robichaux, Acadians in Nantes, 71; Marsha Schneider Ladner, descendant.
(present-day parishes that existed during the War Between the States in parenthesis; hyperlinks on the abbreviations take you to brief histories of each settlement):
Lafourche (Lafourche, Terrebonne)
|SB||San Bernardo (St. Bernard)|
Attakapas (St. Martin, St. Mary, Lafayette, Vermilion)
San Luìs de Natchez (Concordia)
St.-Gabriel d'Iberville (Iberville)
Bayou des Écores (East Baton Rouge, West Feliciana)
New Orleans (Orleans)
St.-Jacques de Cabanocé (St. James)
Baton Rouge (East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge)
Opelousas (St. Landry, Calcasieu)
For a chronology of Acadian Arrivals in Louisiana, 1764-early 1800s, see Appendix.
The hyperlink attached to an individual's name is connected to a list of Acadian immigrants for a particular settlement and provides a different perspective on the refugee's place in family and community.
|Jean GOUSMAN 01||Nov 1785||SB||born c1729, probably St.-Nicolas, Andalusia, Spain; son of Jean GOUSMAN & Marie GRANIELLE; seaman or day laborer; married, age 26, (1)Marie BARRILLEAUX, c1755, probably Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia; married, age 30, (2)Rose, daughter of Jacques dit Jacquot BONNEVIE dit Beaumont & his first wife Marguerite LORD of Port-Royal & Île St.-Jean, 10 Jan 1760, Ste.-Anne, Restigouche; held prisoner at Halifax, 1763; moved to Île Miquelon by 1766; at Le Havre, France, 1772; in Poitou, France, 1773-75; in First Convoy from Châtellerault to Nantes, France, Oct 1775; on list of Acadians at Nantes, Sep 1784, called Jean GUSMAN, with wife, 1 unnamed son, & 1 unnamed daughter; sailed to LA on L'Amitié, age 50[sic], head of family; married (3)Brigitte, daughter of Charles TRAHAN & his first wife Brigitte LANDRY, & widow of Étienne LANDRY & Philippe BOUDIER, early 1790s, San Bernardo or New Orleans; died at New Orleans or San Bernardo by Jul 1801, when his wife was called a widow in a civil record|
|Jean-Thomas GOUSMAN 02||Nov 1785||SB||baptized 13 Aug 1783, St.-Martin-de-Chantenay, France; son of Jean GOUSMAN & his second wife Rose BONNEVIE; brother of Rosalie-Charlotte; on list of Acadians at Nantes, France, Sep 1784, unnamed, with parents & sister; sailed to LA on L'Amitié, age 2; probably died young|
|Rosalie-Charlotte GOUSMAN 03||Nov 1785||NO||born c1764, Halifax; daughter of Jean GOUSMAN & his second wife Rose BONNEVIE; sister of Jean-Thomas; moved to Île Miquelon by 1767; at Le Havre, France, 1772; in Poitou, France, 1773-75; in First Convoy from Châtellerault to Nantes, France, Oct 1775; on list of Acadians at Nantes, Sep 1784, unnamed, with parents & brother; sailed to LA on L'Amitié, age 21; married, age 21, (1)Claude-Epiphane, son of Claude LE FAIBRE & Marianne TUILLIE of Caillouel, Picardie, France, 2 Jan 1786, New Orleans, after they reached LA on the same ship; married, age 31, (2)Evan-Jean DETRESSE of New York, c1795, New Orleans; died New Orleans 16 Oct 1829, a widow, age "ca. 70 yr.[sic]," buried next day|
01. Wall of Names, 39 (pl. 10L), calls him Jean GUSMAN, & lists him with his wife & 2 children; Arsenault, Généalogie, 583, the Port-Royal section, also spells his surname GOUCHEMAN, GOUSMONT, calls him Jean GOUSMAN, says he was born in c1733 but gives no birthplace, gives his parents' names & their home in Spain, presumably his birthplace, calls his first wife Marie BARRILOT, says they married in c1755 but does not give her parents' names nor the place of marriage, details his second marriage, including his second wife's parents' names, says he was at Ristigouche[sic] in 1760, Halifax in 1763, where he says he was a prisoner, Miquelon in 1767, Havre in 1772, & LA in 1785, & says his children were Raphaël, born in 1762, Rosalie-Charlotte, born in 1764, Gousman, born in 1766, Étienne, born in 1767, Joseph-Antoine, born in 1768, Jean-Baptiste, born in 1770, Anne-Marie, born in 1772, & Jean-Thomas, born in 1783, but gives no birthplaces; Arsenault, Généalogie, 2236, in the Île Miquelon section, calls him Jean GOUSMAN, says he was born in 1733 but gives no birthplace, says he was from Port-Royal, gives his parents' names & their home in Spain, presumably his birthplace, calls his first wife Marie BARILLOT but gives no details of the marriage, details his second marriage, including his second wife's parents' names, calls his second wife's mother Marguerite LAURE, says he was at "Ristigouche," Halifax, where he says he was detained in 1763, Miquelon in 1766, Havre in 1772, & LA in 1785, & lists no children; Robichaux, Acadians in Châtellerault, 45-46, Family No. 89, calls him Jean GOUSMAN, says he was born in c1729 "in the parish of St. Nicolas of the bishopric of Andolousie," calls his father Jean GOUSMAN but does not gives his mother's name, calls his first wife Marie BARRILLOT, says he was a seaman, details his second marriage, says his second wife was born in c1741 but gives no birthplace, gives her parents' names, includes the birth/baptismal & death/burial records of daughter Ludivine, baptized 24 Aug 1774, Cenan, goddaughter of Dominique GIROIRE & Ludivine MOULAISON, died age 17 days & buried 11 Sep 1774, Cenan, &, listing only 2 children, Joseph-Antoine & Rosalie-Charlotte, details the family's participation in the Poitou settlement of the early 1770s; Robichaux, Acadians in Nantes, 71, Family No. 134, calls him Jean GOUSMAN, says he was born in c1729 "in the Parish of Saint-Nicolas of the bishopric of Andalousie," gives his father's but not his mother's name, calls his first wife Marie BARRILLOT, says he was a seaman, details his second marriage, says his second wife was born in c1741 but gives no birthplace, gives her parents' names, includes the birth/baptismal record of son Jean-Thomas, baptized 13 Aug 1783, St.-Martin-de-Chantenay but does not give his godparents' names, &, listing only 2 children, Joseph-Antoine & Rosalie-Charlotte, details the family's participation in the Poitou settlement of the early 1770s & its voyage to LA in 1785; Hébert, D., Acadian Families in Exile 1785, 66-67, calls him Jean GUSMAN, journalier, age 50, on the embarkation list, Juan GUZMAN, on the debarkation list, & Jean GOUSMAN, day laborer, age 50, on the complete listing, says he was in the 1st Family aboard L'Amitié with his wife & 2 children, lists no implements the Spanish may have given them after they reached LA, &, calling him Jean GOUSMAN, details his second marriage, including his & his wife's parents' names but substitutes his first wife's name for his mother's name, & says he & his second wife married in 1760 but gives no place of marriage.
His estimated birth year is from Robichaux, not Arsenault or the age given on the passenger list of L'Amitié. But where did Robichaux get his information?
Where did Arsenault find the names & birth years of most of his children?
It would make sense that a Spanish speaker would go to an Isleños community, though Valenzuéla on the upper Lafourche, near Ascension, where the majority of the passengers from his ship settled, also was an Isleños community, as was Galveztown, near St.-Gabriel, in present-day northeastern Ascension Parish. Descendant Marsha Schneider Ladner has found Jean GOUSMAN mentioned in several San Bernardo land records from the early 1790s, so I have no doubt that he went there.
Mrs. Ladner also is the source for Jean's remarriage to Brigitte TRAHAN. They had a son named Jean, born in c1793, who married into the prominent VEILLON family in St. Bernard Parish in 1817. Jean III and his wife Anne Marie VEILLON moved to the Slidell area of St. Tammany Parish in c1822--a most unusual move for an Acadian. But this was not your typical Acadian family.
Mrs. Ladner, the source for Jean's wife Brigitte being called a widow in Jul 1801, found a civil record in St. Bernard Parish that refers to "'Widow Gusman, Brigitte TRAPAN, of St. Bernard, in the City (New Orleans) for this day,' when she gran[ted] her power of Atty to Renato LEROUX (her son in law) in July 1801." She has found no burial record for either Jean or Brigitte.
02. Wall of Names, 39 (pl. 10L), calls him Jean-Thomas GUSMAN, & lists him with his parents & a sister; Robichaux, Acadians in Nantes, Family No. 134, his birth/baptismal record, calls him Jean-Thomas [GOUSMAN], gives his parents' but not his godparents' names, & details the family's voyage to LA in 1785; Hébert, D., Acadian Families in Exile 1785, 66-67, calls him Jean-Thomas, son [Jean GUSMAN's] fils, age 2, on the embarkation list, does not include him on the debarkation list, calls him Jean-Thomas GOUSMAN, his [Jean GOUSMAN's] son, age 2, on the complete listing, & says he was in the 1st Family aboard L'Amitié with his parents & a sister.
He probably died young, but family historian Marsha Ladner has found no burial record for him. According to Mrs. Ladner, we can conclude from children's baptismal records, however, that he was not the Jean GOUSMAN who married Anne Marie VEILLON in St. Bernard Parish in 1817.
03. Wall of Names, 39 (pl. 10L), calls her Rosalie-Charlotte GUSMAN, & lists her with her parents & a brother; Robichaux, Acadians in Chatellerault, 45-46, Family No. 89, calls her Rosalie-Charlotte [GOUSMAN], gives her parents' names, & details the family's participation in the Leigne-les-bois settlement in Poitou in the early 1770s; Robichaux, Acadians in Nantes, Family No. 134, calls her Rosalie-Charlotte [GOUSMAN], gives her parents' names, & details the family's participation in the Leigne-les-bois settlement in Poitou in the early 1770s as well as its voyage to LA in 1785; Hébert, D., Acadian Families in Exile 1785, 66-67, calls her Rosalie-Charlotte, sa [Jean GUSMAN's] fille, age 21, on the embarkation list, does not include her on the debarkation list, calls her Rosalie-Charlotte GOUSMAN, his [Jean GOUSMAN's] daughter, age 21, on the complete listing, & says she was in the 1st Family aboard L'Amitié with his parents & a brother; NOAR, 18:193 (SLC, F15, 86), her death/burial record, calls her Rosalie Charlotte GUZMAN, "native of Halifax in North America (Nova Scotia), Widow LEFEVRE," says she died at age "ca. 70 yr.," & gives her parents' names.
Her marriages are from Marsha Schneider Ladner. Hébert, D., Acadian Families in Exile 1785, 85, calls Rosalie-Charlotte's first husband Claude-Epiphane LE FAIBRE, & includes him on the list of "Names with no reference on the Embarkation list," which means he was either a stowaway or a member of the ship's crew. Mrs. Ladner says he was a member of the ship's crew. Rosalie & Claude had a son named Charles, born at New Orleans in Aug 1791. His birth/baptismal record, dated 26 Aug 1791, in NOAR, 5:104 (SLC, B11, 156), gives the boy's grandparents' as well as his parents' names & where they all were from. The priest who recorded the baptism calls the boy Carlos DE FEUVRE & says that Rosalia Carlota GUZMAN was "of Canada, of San Pedro de Mi(cl)on (St.-Pierre-et-Miquelon)." Her second husband was from New York. Why does her burial record not mention her second husband?
[top of page GOUSMAN]
Copyright (c) 2007-13 Steven A. Cormier